Bipolar Disorder Types, Symptoms, Causes, Evolution & Treatment

The bipolar disorder known as the manic-depressive disorder is a psychiatric condition that causes recurrent mood disorders that progress in two phases (hence the term “bipolar”), which occur alternately. A bipolar person will, therefore, have episodes of depression alternating with episodes of exaggerated euphoria, called manic episodes.

According to the WHO, bipolar disorder affects 60 million people worldwide. In addition, this psychiatric illness often begins in adolescence or young adults (between 15 and 25 years of age). However, it can also occur in people over 60 or even 70 years of age. This article indeed aims to reveal what bipolar disorders or manic-depressive syndrome is, its type, its symptoms, causes and evolution, and treatment.

Two Types Of Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome

Type I Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome

This type I bipolar disorder regarded as by the incidence of one or more manic or mixed episodes. In addition, these mixed episodes consist of a rapid succession of manic and depressive phases in the same day.

Type II Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome

Type II bipolar disorder regarded as by the incidence of one or more foremost depressive episodes escorted by at least one hypomanic episode. In fact, hypomanic episodes, rather than “maniacal” episodes because the phases of exaltation are less pronounced.

In fact, all mood levels can occur in bipolar disorder, from severe depression (melancholic episode) to extreme exaltation (manic episode), moderate depression or periods of normal mood. Melancholy outbursts require special attention from those around them because the intensity of the depression is such that the risk of suicide is extremely high. Also, manic attacks sometimes result in such episodes of agitation that they can lead patients to the police station before they are redirected to a doctor.

Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome Symptoms

Depressive Episodes

They are obviously marked by symptoms that can be similar to depression:

  • Extreme and permanent sadness.
  • Loss of interest in all things.
  • Sleep disorders. Even if you follow the basic tips on sleep well, you face sleep disorder.
  • Lack of energy.
  • Memory or concentration disorders.
  • Appetite disorders.
  • Thoughts of death and suicide.
  • This depressive phase follows a manic phase.

Manic Episodes

They are in fact marked with:

  • A euphoric mood.
  • Permanent and excessive energy.
  • An overwhelming activity or even a great agitation.
  • An overestimation of its capacities.
  • Sleep reduced to a few hours without causing fatigue.
  • An increase in sexual appetite.
  • An erroneous judgment of reality, consisting of ignoring difficulties and problems, and in particular in not realizing the abnormal nature of one’s own state.

Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome Causes And Evolution

The exact causes of bipolar disorder are in fact unknown. However, there are some factors that favour it.

Biological Changes

The functioning of brain cells, as well as their communication between them, seem to be disrupted in sick people.

Genetic causes

Several genes in fact have been identified as contributing to the development of the bipolar disorder. However, the disease is more common in some families. Be aware that bipolar disorder can also develop without any positive effects. In fact, spontaneous evolution is very variable.

Bipolar Disorder / Manic-Depressive Syndrome Causes Evolution

Some heal completely between episodes. Or their moods indeed continue to fluctuate slightly. Whereas, others (5-15%) have four or more episodes in a year. In this case, it is called “rapid-cycle bipolar disorder”. In addition, this form of the disease is sometimes promoted by irregular or interrupted medication.

But in any case, bipolar disorder is usually a long-term illness. Moreover, it usually often starts in young adolescents or adults and lasting a good part of their lives. Of course, crisis episodes are interspersed with remissions during which normal life is possible. In addition, the intensity of the episodes varies.

What Are The Treatments For Bipolar Disorder/Manic-Depressive Syndrome?

Fortunately, there are effective treatments for this very disabling disease. In addition, medication treatment is primarily based on mood regulators (one of the most commonly used is lithium). They indeed make it possible to very strongly limit the occurrence of depressive and manic episodes and to reduce the risk of recurrences. When depressive or manic episodes occur that escape the action of lithium, antidepressants and anxiolytics are used. Furthermore, electric shock is sometimes used in forms that are resistant to drug therapy. In addition, Psychotherapy is important to help the patient but also his relatives on whom the impact of the disease is often important. Since all the processing is complex, they must be implemented by a psychiatrist assisted by other health professionals: psychologists, social workers.

The complexity of treatment is further compounded in some cases by the fact that a patient in the manic or exciting phase generally does not feel sick and does not understand that they want to be treated. S/he understands even less that it is sometimes necessary to hospitalize him/her in a specialized environment.